Following parameters are considered while determining the suitability of the site for fish culture:-
1. SITE SELECTION.
Special consideration should be given to the location. It should be located in an area that is not subject to frequent flooding, should have enough elevation, so that farm can be drained out in case of any emergency, should have suitable texture, enough water supply, availability of required inputs, road access to market even during the rainy season.
a) SOIL SAMPLING
To determine suitability of the site for fish culture, soil samples should be taken from the proposed site. They should be taken from surface and from slightly below the surface that will represent bottom of the ponds, i.e. if three feet of soil is to be excavated, the soil samples should be taken from between three and four feet depth.
A soil sample is taken by drilling a soil auger into the desired depth. The soil in the head of the auger is then placed in a plastic bag and taken to the departmental soil laboratory for analysis. The bag should be labeled with the farm name, the location and the depth at which the soil sample was taken.
b) WATER QUALITY
In most of the areas of the Punjab province water supply is either from a tubewell or irrigation canal. The quality of the tubewell water should be analyzed. For this purpose a sample should be taken preferably in a sealed bottle and sent to the department of Fisheries laboratory for the testing of total alkalinity, hardness, pH, Nitrogen, total dissolved solids along with other required parameters.
c) FARM DESIGNING
A production pond/grow-out pond should be one acre to 2.5 acre area with the length – breadth ratio of 2:1, whereas the size of nursery pond should be at least ½ acre and nursery area should be at least 1/8th of the total production area of fish farming project.
Each production and nursery pond should have an independent inflow as well as outflow water structures to regulate the water level in the pond.
d) MANURING / FERTILIZATION.
In new ponds, bottom should be manured prior to water filling with 5000 to 6000 kgs manure per acre. Cowdung or poultry waste is the most desirable manure. Similar quantity is required to be added periodically in subsequent stages to maintain productivity of the pond throughout the growth period i.e., from march to October.
In addition, fertilizers are also applied during the growth period on fortnightly basis to maintain the productivity of the farm.
Different fertilizers require different application procedures. Manures should be evenly spread in the pond whereas fertilizers should be dissolved in the water in a bucket and then spread on the surface of pond water uniformly.
2. STOKING DENSITIES
CRITERIA FOR THE STOCKING OF A FISH FARM
· Stoking be managed according to the carrying capacity.
· Stoking be executed according to the required ultimate weight of individual fish (at the time of harvest) and the optimum space/room required/kg fish.
· Stoke of fish seed be arranged taking into consideration its potential growth rate under different aquaculture management systems.
RECOMMENDED SPECIES WITH PERCENTAGE OF STOCKING
Name Of The Fish Species Relative Ratio
Grass Carp 15-20%
Silver Carp 15-20%